The only free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language
so (Preposition) "under"
10th cent. Old Spanish so. From Latin sub 'id.' From Proto-Italic *supV "below," "upward." From Proto-Indo-European *(h1)u̯po "up." Like sobre, the sudden apparition of *s- from *h1 is inexplicable.
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese sub, French sous, Aromanian su, Romanian sub
Italic
Oscan συπ (sup) "under," Umbrian su 'id.'
Celtic
Gaulish vo- "under," Old Irish fo 'id.,' Old Welsh guo 'id.,' Old Breton guo 'id.,' Cornish go- 'id.'
Germanic
Gothic uf "under," Old Norse of "over," Old High German oba 'id.'
Hellenic
Ancient Greek ὕπο (hypo) "under"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit úpa "toward," Old Avestan upā 'id.'
sobre (Preposition) "above," "over"
11th cent. Old Spanish sobre. From Latin super 'id.' From Proto-Italic *super(i) 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *(h1)u̯per(i) 'id.' There is no convincing explanation for the emergence of *s- in Proto-Italic, though it also occurred in sub (see so).
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese sobre, Catalan sobre, French super, sur, Italian super, Romanian spre
Italic
Umbrian subra "above"
Celtic
Gaulish ver- "over," Old Irish for 'id.,' Old Welsh guor 'id.,' Old Breton guor- 'id.,' Cornish gor 'id.'
Germanic
Gothic ufar "over," Old Norse yfir 'id.' Old High German ubir'id.,' Old Saxon oƀar 'id.,' English over
Hellenic
Ancient Greek ὑπέρ (hupér) "over"
Armenian
Armenian i ver "up"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit upári "over," Young Avestan upairi 'id.'
sobrevivir (Verb) "to survive"
Very early 17th cent. A calque from Latin supervivere 'id.' From sobre and vivir.
socio (Noun) "member"
15th cent. From Latin socius "companion." From Proto-Italic sokjo- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *sokw-i̯o- 'id.'
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese sócio, Catalan soci, Italian socio, Aromanian sots, Romanian soț
Italic
Faliscan sociai "concubine"
Germanic
Old Norse seggr "man," Old English secg 'id.'
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit sákhāy- "friend," Young Avestan haxa 'id.'
sol m. (Noun) "sun"
12th cent. Old Spanish sol. From Latin sol 'id.' Perhaps from Proto-Italic *saul 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *séh2u̯-l, *sh2u̯-én- 'id.'
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese sol, Galician sol, Catalan sol, French soleil, Italian sole, Aromanian soari, Romanian soare, Sardinian sole
Celtic
Old Irish súil "eye," used metaphorically as the sky's eye, Middle Welsh haul "sun," Old Breton houl 'id.,' Old Cornish heuul 'id.'
Germanic
Gothic sauil "sun," Old Norse sōl 'id.,' Old High German sunna 'id.,' Old Saxon sunna 'id.,' Old English sōl 'id.' (English sun)
Balto-Slavic
Old Church Slavonic slъnьce "sun," Russian sólnce 'id.,' Czech slunce 'id.,' Polish sɫońce 'id.,' Slovene sȏɫnce 'id.,' Old Prussian saule 'id.,' Lithuanian sáulė 'id.,' Latvian saũle 'id.'
Hellenic
Ancient Greek ἠέλιος (heélios) "sun"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit svàr- "sun," Old Avestan huuarə̄ 'id.'
The word in Proto-Indo-European is an l/n-stem, a rare morphological type of unknown origin and reason. The development of *séh2u̯-l into Proto-Italic and then into Latin is not without phonological difficulties. See de Vaan (2008) for discussion.
solamente (Adjective) "only"
From solo and -mente, an adjective-forming suffix.
soldado (Noun) "soldier"
12th cent. Originally meaning "mercenary." From Late Latin solidatus "salaried man." From Latin solido "salary" (see sueldo).
sólido (Adjective) "solid"
From Latin solidus 'id.' From Proto-Italic *soliþo- "whole." From Proto-Indo-European *solh2-i̯-dhh1-o- "complete." From the root *sólH-u̯- "whole" (see salvo).
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese sólido, Catalan sòlid, French solide, Italian sodo, Romanian solid
solio m. (Noun) "throne;" (archaic) "ceremony of fealty between the Spanish king and the Cortes"
From Latin solium "chair," "throne." Old Latin sodium. Solio is also the archaic name for the ceremony undergirding the Cortes and their pledge of fealty to their king, due to a metaphor for the throne as the name for the king's dominion and rule over the land. A metaphor since Roman times. From Proto-Italic *sod-jo- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *sod-i̯o- "seat," from *sed- 'id.'
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese sólio
Celtic
Old Irish suide "seat"
solo, sólo (Adjective) "only," "alone"
11th cent. Old Spanish solo. From Latin solus 'id.' Ultimately of unknown origin.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian solu, Portuguese solo, só, Catalan sol, French seul, Italian solo, Sardinian sou