The only free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language
pelota (2) f. (Noun) "body hair"
Only surviving in an adverbial phrase en pelota "naked." Old Spanish pellote. 14th cent. derivation from pelo.
The modern use of en pelotas (or en bolas) in place of en pelota is due to folk etymology. The original meaning of body hair is lost and the word is analogically reformed to mean "in balls," referring to a man's testicles.
pena (1) f. (Noun) "pain;" "punishment"
10th cent. From Latin pœna 'id.,' borrowed from Ancient Greek ποινή (poiné) "penalty." From Proto-Indo-European *kwoi-neh2 'id.' From *kwei̯- "to avenge" but with an older literal meaning of "to make pay."
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese pena, Catalan pena, French peine, Italian pena
Balto-Slavic
Old Church Slavonic cěna "price," Russian cená 'id.,' Czech cena 'id.,' Polish cena 'id.,' Slovene cẹ́na 'id.,' Lithuanian káina 'id.,' Latvian cìens "honor"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit cáyate "to avenge," Avestan kaēnā- "punishment"
Basque
Basque pena "sorrow," Zuberoan phéna 'id.,' borrowed from Spanish
pena (2) f. (Noun) "feather quill pen;" "plume"
From Latin penna "feather." From Proto-Italic *petnā- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *pet-n-h2- "wing," "feather."
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese pena, French penne, Italian penna, Aromanian peanã, Romanian pană, Sardinian pinna
Celtic
Old Irish én "bird," Old Welsh eterin "bird," atar "wing," Old Breton attanoc "winged"
Germanic
Old Norse fjǫðr "feather," Old High German federa 'id.,' Old Saxon fethera 'id.,' English feather
Hellenic
Ancient Greek πτέρον (ptéron) "wing"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit pátra- "wing," Avestan patarə-ta- "winged"
pender (Verb) "to hang"
11th cent. From Latin pendere "to weight," "to hang." From Proto-Italic *pend-e/o- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *(s)pend-e/o- 'id.'
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese pender, Catalan penjar, French pendre, Italian pendere, Sardinian pendhere
Balto-Slavic
Old Church Slavonic pędь "span," Russian pjad' 'id.,' Czech píd' 'id.,' Polish piędź 'id.,' Slovene pę̑d 'id.,' Lithuanian spę́sti "to set a trap"
pensar (Verb) "to think"
12th cent. From Latin pensare "to consider," from pendar "to weigh" (see pender) with a frequentive suffix (see note under faltar).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian pesar, Portuguese pesar, Galician pensar, Catalan pesar, French peser, Italian pesare, Romanian păsa, Sardinian pesai
peor (Adjective, Adverb) "worse," "worst"
12th cent. From Latin peior 'id.' From Proto-Italic *ped-jōs 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *ped- "to fall."
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese pior, Galician peor, Catalan pitjor, French pire, Italian peggiore, Sardinian pejus
Germanic
Old Norse feta "to step," Old High German fezzan"to fall," Old English fetan 'id.'
Balto-Slavic
Old Church Slavonic pasti "to fall," Russian past' 'id.,' Old Czech pásti 'id.,' Polish paść 'id.,' Slovene pásti 'id.'
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit pádyate "he moves," Young Avestan paiδiia- "to go in"
pequeño (Adjective, Noun) "small;" "child"
12th cent. Perhaps from Vulgar Latin *peccuinus, from Latin pisinnus 'id.,' but there is no perfectly convincing explanation for this development. Compare Argentine pituco "flirt," Chilean pituco "boney," "small;" Sardinian pitikku "small" from Vulgar Latin *pitittus, and ultimately from the same source.
In the earliest texts the word of choice to indicate smallness was chico. Only later among the intellectuals did pequeño replace chico.
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese pequeno, French petit, Sardinian pitikku
perder (Verb) "to lose"
12th cent. From Latin perdere 'id.' From per- "through" (see por) and dare "to give" (see dar).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian perder, Portuguese perder, Galician perder, Catalan perdre, French perdre, Italian perdere, Aromanian cherdu, Romanian pierde, Sardinian peldere
perdón m. (Noun) "pardon," "forgiveness"
12th cent. A back formation noun from the Vulgar Latin verb *perdonare "to forgive" (see perdonar). The ending was probably influenced by the development of Latin donum "gift" to Spanish don.
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese dom, French don, Italian duno
perdonable (Adjective) "forgivable"
From perdonar and -able, an adjective-forming suffix indicating a potential or capacity.