12th cent. From Latin patrem, accusative of pater 'id.'
From Proto-Italic *pater 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *ph2tḗr "father," but more anciently "protector." From the root *peh2- "to protect."
Use in the plural meaning "parents" is from Vulgar Latin *patres
"parents," "ancestors," "fathers;" accusative plural of Latin pater
. The earliest Spanish texts when naming parents strictly use parientes
. Only in the 13th cent. (and rarely) does padres
"parents" occur. By the 14th cent., padres
were in equal competition. Fahnestock & Peaks (1913) assume the Vulgar Latin use of *patres
for both parents and fathers was under influence from Greek, which had done the same.
As a surname, given in religious reference to God the Father, second person of the Christian Trinity.
Chile, Andalucia, West Argentina paire. A hypocoristric development is Puerto Rico pay, Cuba pae, paíto.
Western Vulgar Latin: Asturian pá, Portuguese pai, padre, Galician pai, padre, Catalan pare, French père, Italian padre; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Romanian pater
Oscan patir "father," Venetic pater 'id.,' Marsian patre "to the father," South Picene patereíh 'id.'
Celtic: Gaulish atrebo "father," Old Irish athir 'id.;' Germanic: Gothic fadar "father," Old Norse faðir 'id.,' Old High German fatar 'id.,' Old Saxon fadar 'id.,' English father; Hellenic: Ancient Greek πατήρ (patér) "father," Mycenaean pa-te 'id.;' Armenian: hayr "father;" Indo-Iranian: Sanskrit pitár- "father," Old Avestan ptā 'id.;' Tocharian: A pācar "father," B pācer 'id.;'
"Unlike [Late Proto-Indo-European] *māter
does not denote the physical parent, as is evidenced, for instance, by the ancient juxtaposition preserved in Latin Iupiter
"The personal “father” is atta
, which alone survives in Hittite, Gothic and Slavic. If in these languages the ancient term *pəter
has been replaced by atta
, this is because *pəter
was originally a classificatory term." ~ E. Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society