The only free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language
mensaje f. (Noun) "message"
12th cent. Old Spanish mesaje. Borrowed from Old Occitan messatge 'id.,' from Vulgar Latin missaticum 'id.,' from Latin missus "sent," the passive participle of mittere "to send" (see meter for further etymology).
-mente Adverb-forming suffix akin to "-ly."
Originally Old Spanish -mientre, under contamination from -iter, and -miente, but replaced by dialect variation -mente. From Vulgar Latin *-mente 'id.' From Latin mente "by the mind," from mens "mind." See mente for further etymology.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian -miente, Portuguese -mente, Galician -mente, Catalan -ment, French -ment, Italian -mente, Neopolitan -mente, Sardinian -menti
The grammaticalization of mente into a suffix was an ancient process of referring to mental states by saying "with a ____ mind." For example, studiosa mente "with a studious mind" (Pharies 2008). It later crystalized as a suffix when speakers referred to any and every action with mente, thus generalizing its role and securing its place as a suffix (Dyer 1972). The addition of mente was largely a Vulgar Latin habit, in Classical Latin the traditional word was modo "way."
Ellision of the suffix is uneven across the Western Romance languages. In Spanish, the suffix is ellided until the final adverb (e.g. rápida y locamente), but in French the suffix is never ellided and in Catalan the first adverb takes the suffix while the subsequent are ellided (e.g. rápidament i silenciosa) (Castells 2013). "In modern Spanish, -mente is no longer perceived as a noun (its congener miente is now confined to a few idiomatic expressions), but it can still be detached from its host adjective in order to avoid awkward repetition.... ~ Harris & Vincent, The Romance Languages (2003)
mente m. (Noun) "mind"
10th cent. Old Spanish miente. From Latin mentem, accusative of mens 'id.' From Proto-Italic *mn̥ti- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *mn̥-ti- 'id.' From the root *men- "to think."
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese mente, Catalan ment, Italian mente, Aromanian minti, Romanian minte, Sardinian mente
Germanic
Gothic ga-minþi "memory," Old Norse mynd "image," Old High German gi-munt "memory," Old English ge-mynd "mind" (English mind)
Balto-Slavic
Old Church Slavonic pamętь "memory," Russian pá-mjat' 'id.,' Czech pamět' 'id.,' Slovene pámet, Lithuanian mintìs "idea"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit matí- "thought," "mind"
For the origin of the word as a suffix, see -mente.
mentir (Verb) "to lie"
12th cent. From Latin mentiri 'id.' Originally meaning "to be inventive." From mens "mind" (see mente).
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese mentir, Catalan mentir, French mentir, Italian mentire, Romanian minți
mentira f. (Noun) "lie"
10th cent. From mentir.
menudo (1) (Adverb) "small"
13th cent. From Latin minutus 'id.' From minuere "to lessen." From Proto-Italic *minu-je/o- 'id.' A u-derivative from Proto-Indo-European *mi̯-ne-h1 'id.' From the root *mei̯h1- "little."
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian menude, Portuguese miúdo, Galician minuto, Catalan menut, French menu, Italian minuto, Aromanian minut, Romanian mărunt
Germanic
Gothic mins "less," Old Norse minnr 'id.,' Old High German mind 'id.,' Old Saxon min 'id.'
Hellenic
Ancient Greek μείων (meíon) "smaller"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit minā́ti "to damage"
Tocharian
B maiwe "small"
menudo (2) m. (Noun) "soup made of beef tripe, beef, or pork"
While most commonly associated with Mexico and the Phillipines, the dish originates in Medieval Spain. The reason for the name is unknown. It derives from the adverb menudo (1).
mercado m. (Noun) "market"
Meaning "market," first attested in 1495. The Old Spanish meaning of "business," attested from the mid-13th cent. From Latin mercatus "market," "trade," from mercari "to trade." Derived from merx "merchandise" (see merced).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian mercáu, Galician mercado, Portuguese mercado, Catalan mercat, French marché (Old French marchiet), Italian mercato, Sardinian melcadu
Basque
Basque merkatu "market," borrowed from Latin mercatus
merced f. (Noun) "mercy;" "grace"
12th cent. borrowing from Medieval Latin mercedem, accusative of merces "pay," "reward." From Latin merx "merchandise." From Proto-Italic *merk- "trade." From an unknown Etruscan word.
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese mercê, French merci, Italian mercede
Italic
Latin Mercurius "god of trade," Oscan mirikui (name of a deity), Faliscan mercui (name of a deity)
merecer (Verb) "to deserve"
12th cent. From Vulgar Latin *merescere 'id.,' from merere "to deserve" and the inchoative suffix -escere (see -ecer). Latin merere is from Proto-Italic *mer-ē- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *(s)mr-eh1 "to earn," "to deserve."
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese merecer, Galician merecer, Catalan merèixer, French mériter, Italian meritare, Romanian merita
Balto-Slavic
Old Irish mart "fated death," Old Welsh marth "wonder" (however Middle Welsh marth "untimely death"), Cornish marth "miracle," Breton marzh 'id.'
Hellenic
Ancient Greek μόρος (móros) "destiny," "death," μείρομαι (meíromai) "I receive as apportioned"