The only free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language
Marte m. (Noun) (deity) "Mars;" (planet) "Mars"
17th cent. From Latin Martem, accusative of Mars, the Roman god of war. Note Old Latin mamartei "to Mars" found on the Lapis Satricanus. Of unknown origin.
Indo-European
Italic
Oscan μαμερτει (mamertei) "to Mars," Umbrian marte 'id.'
marzo m. (Noun) "March"
12th cent. From Latin martius "of Mars," the Roman god of war (see Marte).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian marzu, Galician marzo, Portuguese março, Catalan març, French mars, Aromanian martsu, Romanian marț, Sardinian martzu
más, mas (Adverb, Conjunction) "more;" "but"
10th cent. Old Spanish maes. From Vulgar Latin *ma(g)is "there is more" or "yet." From Latin magis "more." From Proto-Italic *magis 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *mǵ-i̯s "greater." From the root *meǵ- "great." See also mayor.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian más, Portuguese mais, Galician máis, Catalan més, French mais, Italian mai, Aromanian ma, Romanian mai, Sardinian mai
Italic
Oscan mais "more"
Celtic
Gaulish Magios (name) "great," Middle Irish maige "large"
Germanic
Gothic mikils "large," Old Norse mikill 'id.,' Old High German mihhil 'id.,' Old Saxon mikil 'id.,' Old English micel 'id.' (Middle English muchel, English much)
Albanian
Albanian madh "large"
Hellenic
Ancient Greek μέγας (mégas) "large"
Armenian
Armenian mec "large"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit máhi- "large," Avestan mazōi "big"
Tocharian
A māk "many," B māka 'id.'
matar (Verb) "to kill"
10th cent. Of unknown origin. There are three plausible theories. The youngest theory is an origin in Arabic mata "he has died." The oldest theory is that matar derives from Latin mactare "to slaughter" through a hypothetical Vulgar Latin word *mattare. A final theory connects it to Latin mattus "stupified" via a Vulgar Latin word also reconstructed as *mattare. See Dworkin (2012) for a full discussion.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian matar, Portuguese matar, Galician matar, Catalan matar, Italian mattare
"Primary verbs of Arabic origin are rare in Spanish: achacar 'to blame, criticize', atamar 'to finish', halagar 'to flatter', recamar 'to embroider' atracar 'to bring a ship alongside the dock', zahorar 'to eat late, have a feast'. The verb nicar 'to copulate' turns up once in the Cancionero de Baena... Does the infrequency in the recipient language of primary verbs borrowed from Arabic constitute sufficient grounds to definitively reject the proposed Arabic etymology of Sp./Ptg. matar 'to kill'?" ~ S. Dworkin, A History of the Spanish Lexicon (2012)
matrimonio m. (Noun) "matrimony"
14th cent. Borrowed from Latin matrimonium 'id.' Literally a "mother-obligation." From matr- "mother" (see madre) and -monium "obligation" (see -monio).
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese matrimónio, Catalan matrimoni, Italian matrimonio, Romanian matrimoniu
"“Marriage” has no Indo-European term. In speaking of the man it is simply said—and this in expressions which have often been remodeled in particular languages—that he “leads” (home) a woman whom another man has “given” him (Lat. uxorem ducere and nuptum dare; in speaking of the woman, that she enters into the “married state,” receiving a function rather than accomplishing an act (Lat. ire in matrimonium)." ~ E. Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (1973)
"No single term for 'marriage' can be reconstructed; different legal kinds of marriage were recognized, including marriage by abduction... In the daughter languages, 'to marry' (a woman) is usually expressed by a verb meaning 'to lead away' or 'to take' (as Latin uxorem ducere 'lead a wife, marry'), and this can be confidently projected back onto the proto-language." ~ B. Fortson, Indo-European Language and Culture (2011)
Maya (1) (Noun) "Mayan"
From Yucatec Maya, the endogenous name of their language.
Maya (2) f. (Noun) "Maia"
From Latin Maia, goddess of fertility in the Greek pantheon. Taken from Ancient Greek Μαῖα (maîa), which came from μαῖα (maîa) "mother," "elderly woman." From μᾶ (ma) "mother." See also mamá.
maya (3) f. (Noun) "daisy"
Very late 16th cent. Derived from mayo as the flower typically blooms in May.
mayo m. (Noun) "May"
12th cent. From Latin Maius "of May," derived from the name of Maia, a Roman deity. See Maya (2).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian mayu, Galician maio, Portuguese maio, Catalan maig, French mai, Italian maggio, Romanian mai, Sardinian mayu
mayor (Adjective) "larger," "older"
12th cent. From Latin maior 'id.' From Proto-Italic *mag-jo- "greater." From Proto-Indo-European *mǵ-i̯ó- 'id.' From *meǵ- "great." See also más.
As for the origin of the surname: the Mayor was the master of a farmhouse or estate, thus called during the Medieval period.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian mayor, Portuguese maior, Galician maior, Catalan major, French majeur, maire, Italian maggiore, Romanian maior, Sardinian magiori
Celtic
Gaulish Magios (name) "great," Middle Irish maige "large"
Germanic
Gothic mikils "large," Old Norse mikill 'id.,' Old High German mihhil 'id.,' Old Saxon mikil 'id.,' Old English micel 'id.' (Middle English muchel, English much)
Albanian
Albanian madh "large"
Hellenic
Ancient Greek μέγας (mégas) "large"
Armenian
Armenian mec "large"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit máhi- "large," Avestan mazōi "big"
Tocharian
A māk "many," B māka 'id.'