11th cent. From Latin fumus 'id.'
From Proto-Italic *fūmo- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *dhu̯h2-mó- 'id.' From a root *dhu̯eh2- "to smoke" (whence heder) and the noun-forming suffix *-mó- (see -mo).
Asturian fumu, Portuguese fumo, Galician fume, Catalan fum, French fumée, Italian fumo, Aromanian fum, Romanian fum, Sardinian fummu
Old High German toum "steam"
Old Church Slavonic dymъ "smoke," Old Prussian dumis 'id.,' Lithuanian dū́mai 'id.'
13th cent. Originally referring to bodily humors. Borrowed from Medieval Latin umor 'id.' and the h- added through hypercorrection. From Latin umor "liquid."
From Proto-Italic *ūmo- "wet." From Proto-Indo-European *u̯h1-mo- "wet." A putative root *u̯eh1- "to be wet" is extremely uncertain.
Latin uvidus "soaked"
Middle Irish fúal "urine"
Old Norse vǫkr "moist," Middle Dutch wac 'id.'
Ancient Greek ὑγρός (ygrós) "wet"
"humus" A collection of decomposing organic compounds.
Borrowed from Latin humus "earth," "soil."
From Proto-Italic *χomo- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *dhǵ-ōm 'id.,' with a stem *dheǵ- of uncertain meaning.
"who is below" (< *ǵhom-tero-
, the second element being the comparative suffix *-tero-
added (see -tr-
)), Umbrian hutra
"the one underneath" (< *ǵhom-tero-
Old Irish dú "place" Balto-Slavic Old Church Slavonic zemlja "earth," Russian zemljá 'id.,' Czech země 'id.,' Bulgarian zemjá, Old Prussian semmē 'id.,' Lithuanian žẽmė 'id.,' Latvian zeme 'id.'
Albanian dhe "earth"
Ancient Greek χθών (khthón) "earth"
Sanskrit kṣā́ḥ "earth," Avestan zā̊ 'id.'
A tkaṃ "earth," B keṃ 'id.'
Borrowed from Turkish humus 'id.,' which in turn was borrowed from Arabic ḥummuṣ "hummus," but more accurately "chickpeas," the main ingredient in hummus.
13th cent. From Latin fundere "to pour." The evolution from "pouring" into "sinking" comes from naval war; the word was used as a term for sinking enemy seacraft.
From Proto-Italic *χund-e/o- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *ǵhu-n-d- 'id.,' a d-present re-interpreted as a nasal present, but the change from *ǵh- to *χ- in Proto-Italic is unexpected.
Asturian fundir, Galician fundir
Umbrian hondu "throw down," Faliscan huti[c]ilom (?) "vasette?"
Gothic giutan "to pour," Old English gheotan 'id.' (English gush)
Ancient Greek χέω (khéo) "I pour
Armenian jew "mould"
Sanskrit juhóti "pours," Avestan ā-zūiti- "butter," "sacrificial fat"
B ku- "to pour"