The only free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language
gnosis f. (Noun) "intimate knowledge of the divine" (of the kind sought by the Gnostics); "Gnosticism"
Borrowed from Ancient Greek γνῶσις (gnôsis) "knowledge," from the verb γιγνώσκειν (gignóskein) "to be aware of." From Proto-Indo-European *ǵi-ǵn̥h3-sk- 'id.,' reduplication of the root *ǵneh3- "to know" (the same origin as conocer).
gobernar (Verb) "to govern"
10th cent. From Latin gobernare "to govern," but originally "to steer a ship." Borrowed from Greek κῠβερνᾶν (kybernân) "to steer" and metaphorically "to rule." Of unknown origin. Perhaps borrowed from a non-Indo-European language.
gobierno m. (Noun) "government"
14th cent. Formed from the Latin verb gobernare "to govern," but originally "to steer a ship" (see gobernar).
gol m. (Noun) (sports) "goal"
Early 20th cent. Borrowed from English goal. From Middle English gol "limit." Of unknown origin.
golpe m. (Noun) "strike," "blow"
12th cent. Old Spanish colpe. From Late Latin colpus 'id.,' a syncopation of Latin colaphus "blow (by hand)." Borrowed from Ancient Greek κόλαφος ‎(kólaphos) "slap." Of unknown origin. Borrowed from a non-Indo-European language.
gordo (Adjective) "fat"
12th cent. From Latin gurdus "heavy," "stupid." Even as late as the 18th cent., gordo could mean dull-witted. Of unknown origin. Borrowed from a non-Indo-European language in Iberia.
Also the origin of the surnames Gordo, Gordillo, Gordilla, Gordito, Gorejo, Gordjuela, Gordón, and Gordoncillo; originally used as names for overweight individuals and later fossilized into surnames.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian gordu, Portuguese gordo, Catalan gord, French gourd
Gorda or perra gorda "10 cent coin," c. 1870, an uncommon name first made in reference to the 10 cent coins minted by the the provisional government of Spain of 1868-1871. The coin featured a lion with an unclear design that resembled more a fat dog than a stately lion. As the design has long since been retired, the name perra gorda has outlived the coin.
"Furthermore - returning to my original plan - words are either Latin or foreign. Foreign words, just like people, have come to us from almost every nation. ...I have heard that gurdus, the vulgar word for "fool," comes from Spain." ~ Quintilian, De institutione oratorio (in The Orator's Education 2002)
gracia f. (Noun) "grace," "favor;" (plural) "thanks"
12th cent. From Latin gratia 'id.' From gratus "pleasing" (see grado (2)).
Also the origin of the surnames Gracia and Gracián (from the Latin name Gratianus, from Gratius). As regards the origin of Gracia, a district of Barcelona, it derives from the name of a local Carmelite convent called Nostra Senyora de Gràcia in Catalan.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian gracia, Portuguese graça, Catalan gràcia, French grâce, Italian grazia, Romanian grație
In Roman society, grace was as much a religious as economic relief. "[Latin] gratia consists in saving expenditure. ...In a money-based civilization “grace” shown to a person is to “show grace” to him by suspending his obligation to pay for the service received. This is how a term of sentiment came to be used in an economic sense, without altogether severing itself from the religious context in which it arose." ~ E. Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (1973)
gracias (Interjection) "thank you"
From the Latin statement gratias agere "to give thanks," but more literally "to do thanks." Gratias was the accusative plural of gratia (see gracia). For the etymology of agere, see -igar.
gracioso (Adjective) "funny;" "pleasing"
13th cent. From Latin gratiosus "popular," "pleasing" from gratia "favor" (see gracia).
grado (1) m. & f. (Noun) "step"
12th cent. From Latin gradus 'id.' From Proto-Italic *grad- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *ghred(h)- 'id.'
In the 13th cent. also with the meaning "dignity," an analogy of a noble's gracious stride, which is the origin of the surnames Grado, Grados, Grade, Grada, Gradera, Gradín, and Gradillas; as well as the name El Grado for towns in Oviedo, Huesca, and Segovia.
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese grado, Catalan grau, French grade, Italian grado, Romanian grad