The only free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language
deber m. (Verb, Noun) "to owe;" "duty," (plural) "homework"
As a verb, first attested use is in the 12th cent.; as a noun, 16th cent. From Latin debere "to owe" but originally "to withhold." From de- (see de-) and habere "to have" (see haber).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian deber, Portuguese dever, Galician deber, Catalan deure, French devoir, Italian dovere, Sardinian dèpere
"This literal interpretation corresponds to an actual use: [Latin] debeo is used in circumstances in which one has to give back something belonging to another and which one keeps without having literally “borrowed” it; debere is to detain something taken from the belongings or rights of others. Debere is used, for instance, for “to owe the troops their pay” in speaking of a chief, or the provisioning of a town with corn. The obligation to give results from the fact that one holds what belongs to another. That is why debeo in the early period is not the proper term for “debt.”" ~ E. Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (1973)
debido (Adjective) "due"
12th cent. Sense of moral obligation is from 16th cent. From deber.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian deber, Portuguese dever, Galician deber, Catalan deure, French devoir, Italian dovere, Sardinian dèpere, depi
débil (Adjective) "weak"
15th cent. A learned borrowing from Latin debilis 'id.,' replacing Old Spanish feble (itself borrowed from Old French). From Proto-Italic *dē-bel-i- "without strength." From *dē- "undoing of" (see de-) and *bel- "strength." From Proto-Indo-European *bel-o- 'id.,'
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian débil, Portuguese débil, Galician débil, Catalan dèbil, French débile, Italian debole, debile, Eastern Vuglar Latin Romanian debil, Sardinian débbile, débbili
Balto-Slavic
Old Church Slavonic boļii "bigger," Russian ból'šij 'id.' BCS bȍljī 'id.'
Hellenic
Ancient Greek βέλτατος (béltatos) "best"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit bála- "strength"
decidido (Adjective) "decided"
16th cent. From decidir.
decidir (Verb) "to decide"
16th cent. From Latin decidere "to decide" but literally "to cut down." From de- "from," "away" (see de- and caedere "to fall" (see caer).
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese decidir, Catalan decidir, French décider, Italian decidere, Romanian decide
decir m. (Verb, Noun) "to say;" "saying"
10th cent. From Latin dicere "to say." From Proto-Italic *deik-e/o- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *dei̯ḱ-e/o- 'id.'
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian dicir, Portuguese dizer, Galician dicir, Catalan dir, French dire, Italian dire, Aromanian dzãtsiri, Romanian zicere
Italic
Oscan deíkum, Umbrian teitu "he said," Marrucinian *-dix "said," Marsian *-dis 'id.,' Paelignian *-dix 'id.,' Volscian *-dix 'id.'
Germanic
Gothic ga-teihan "to indicate"
Hellenic
Ancient Greek δείκνῡμι (deíknymi) "to show"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit diś- "to show," Old Avestan dāiš "you showed"
decisión f. (Noun) "decision"
16th cent. From Latin decisionem, accusative of decisio 'id.' From the verb decidere "to decide," but commonly "to cut off" (see decidir).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian decisión, Portuguese decisão, Galician decisión, Catalan decisió, French décision, Italian deicisione, Romanian decizie
dedo m. (Noun) "finger"
12th cent. From Vulgar Latin dicitus. From Latin digitus 'id.' Of unknown origin.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian deu, Portuguese dedo, dígito, Galician dedo, Catalan dit, French doigt, Italian dito, Aromanian dzeadzit, Romanian: deget, Sardinian didu
In the 3rd or 4th cent. text Appendix Probi we find the line: digitus non dicitus "[the word for 'finger' is] digitus, not dicitus." The author's spelling correction proves how the word was pronounced by common speakers, and offers a rare glimpse of the evolution of Latin into Romance languages such as Spanish.
defender (Verb) "to defend"
12th cent. Borrowed from Latin defendere 'id.' From Proto-Italic *dē-χwnd- 'id.' From *dē- "away" (see de-) and *χwend- "to hit." From Proto-Indo-European *gwhen-dh- 'id.'
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese defender, Catalan defendre, defensar, French défendre, Italian difendere
Celtic
Old Irish gonaid "to wound," Welsh gwan "to hit," Old Cornish goanaff "to sting," Middle Cornish gwana 'id.'
Balto-Slavic
Old Church Slavonic gъnati "to persecute," Lithuanian gìnti "to defend"
Hellenic
Ancient Greek θείνειν (theínein) "to strike"
Armenian
Armenian ǰnem 'id.'
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit hánti "kills"
defensa f. (Noun) "defense"
Late 15th cent. Borrowed from Latin defensa 'id.' From defendere "to defend" (see defender).
Indo-European
Romance
Portuguese defender, Catalan defendre, defensar, French défendre, Italian difendere