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-dad, -tad Suffix used to form abstract nouns from adjectives.
From Latin -tatem, accusative of -tas 'id.' From Proto-Italic *-tāts 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *-teh2ts 'id.'
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Asturian -tá, Portuguese -dade, Galician -dade, Catalan -tat, French , Italian -ità; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Aromanian -tati, Romanian -tate
Indo-European: Hellenic: Ancient Greek -της (tes); Indo-Iranian: Sanskrit -tāti
dama (1) f. (Noun) "lady"
13th cent. Borrowed from French dame "dame." From Latin domina "lady (of the house)." See dueño.
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Portuguese dona, donzela, Galician dona, doncela, Catalan dona, donzella, French dame, demoiselle, Italian donna, dama; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Aromanian doamnã, Romanian doamnă, damă; Sardinian: dòna
dama (2) f. (Noun) (frontpiece of furnace) "slab," "wall"
Borrowed from French dame 'id.' Borrowed from a Germanic source (compare German Damm "dike," Dutch dam "dam;" a Gothic form *damma- "fence" probably existed as well). From Proto-Germanic *damma "partition," "fence." Of unknown origin. Probably borrowed from a non-Indo-European language.
dañar (Verb) "to harm"
13th cent. From Latin damnare 'id.,' from the noun damnum (see daño).
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Asturian dañar, Portuguese danar, Galician danar, French damner, Italian dannare; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Romanian damna, dăuna
Superficially similar to Semitic words for sacrificial meat and sacrificed animals. A reconstruction in Proto-Semitic *d-b-ḥ- would imply a loan (cf. ð-b-H- in Möller 1970).
"Damnare means to afflict a damnum on somebody, a curtailment of his resources; from this stems the legal notion of damnare ‘to condemn’." ~ E. Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (1973)
daño m. (Noun) "harm," "damage"
12th cent. From Latin damnum 'id.' From Proto-Italic *dapno- "loss." From Proto-Indo-European *dh2p-no- "expenditure." From root *deh2p- "to lose."
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Asturian dañu, Portuguese dano, Galician dano, Catalan dany, French dam; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Romanian daună; Sardinian: dànnu
Semitic: East Semitic: Akkadian zību; Central Northwest Semitic: Ugaritic dbḥ, Hebrew zeḇaḥ; South Semitic: Ethiopian zabHa
Indo-European: Germanic: Old Norse tafn "sacrificial animal;" Armenian: tawn "feast;" Anatolian: Hittite tappala- "head cook"
"In historic times there remains only damnum with the derived sense of “injury sustained, what is taken away by forcible seizure.” It is the expense to which one is condemned by circumstances or by certain legal stipulations. The peasant spirit and the legal exactitude of the Romans transformed the ancient conception: ostentatious expenditure became no more than an outright expenditure, what constitutes a loss." ~ E. Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (1973)
dar (Verb) "to give"
12th cent. From Latin dare 'id.' From Proto-Italic *dide- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *di̯-deh3- "to be giving." Reduplication of *deh3- "to give" to form the imperfective aspect.
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Asturian dar, Portuguese dar, Galician dar, Catalan dar, Italian dare; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Aromanian dau, dari Romanian da, dare, Sardinian dare
Italic: Oscan didet "will give," Umbrian teřa "gives," Paelignian datas "given," Venetic doto "gave," Vestian didet "gives," Pre-Samnite tetet "gave," Marsian ded "given"
Indo-European: Celtic: Old Irish do-rata "giveable;" Balto-Slavic: Old Church Slavonic dati, Lithuanian dúoti; Albanian: (archaic) dhae; Hellenic: Ancient Greek δίδωμι (dídomi); Armenian: tam; Indo-Iranian: Sanskrit dádāti, Young Avestan daδāiti; Anatolian: Hittite dā-i "to wed," Cuneiform Luwian lā-
For the origin of irregular form doy "I am," see -oy.
The root *deh3- meant both give and take at once, and the root probably ment "to stretch out one's hand" in Pre-Proto-Indo-European. As one linguist wrote on this root: "The root *dō- means “give” in all Indo-European languages. However, there is one language which fails to conform to this definition: in Hittite, dā- means “take” and pai- ‘give’... The notion of “give” and “take” are thus linked in prehistoric Indo-European." ~ E. Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (1973)
dato m. (Noun) "datum;" (pl.) "information"
Borrowed from Latin datum 'id.' From the verb dare "to give" (see dar).
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: French
de (Preposition) "of," "from"
10th cent. Vulgar Latin de (Peregrinatio, 4th cent.) (Already assuming the roles of ab "by" and ex "out of" in Classical Latin). From Latin de "of." From Proto-Italic * 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *deh1- "by means of (this) here," instrumental of *de "here."
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Asturian de, Portuguese de, Galician de, Catalan de, French de, Italian di; Eastern Vuglar Latin: Aromanian di, Romanian de
Italic: Oscan dat, Umbrian da-, Faliscian de (borrowed from Latin?)
Indo-European: Celtic: Old Irish de, Old Welsh di; Germanic: Old High German zuo "to," Old Saxon 'id.,' English to; Hellenic: Ancient Greek δή (dé) "even"
de- (Prefix) "away," "reverse of"
From Latin de- 'id.' From Proto-Italic *dē- 'id.' From the particle * "of this" (see de).
Indo-European: Celtic: Old Irish de, Old Welsh di; Germanic: Old High German zuo "to," Old Saxon 'id.,' English to; Hellenic: Ancient Greek δή (dé) "even"
debajo (Adverb) "underneath"
18th cent. Compound of de and bajo.