The only free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language
carterista (Noun) "pickpocket"
From cartera.
cartero (Noun) "mail carrier"
Early 17th cent. From carta.
carteta f. (Noun) "lansquenet"
Diminutive of carta.
cartilla f. (Noun) "brief letter;" "primer"
16th cent. From carta.
casa f. (Noun) "house"
10th cent. From Latin casa "hut." Of unknown origin. Possibly from Proto-Italic *kat-ja, but ultimately from a substrate language.
There is an uncommon apocopated version of the word, cas, which appears in other Romance Languages as well (cf. Catalan ca(s), Asturian cas) and may stretch back to Vulgar Latin *cas. Also the origin of the surnames de la Casa, de las Casas, Casas, and Lacasa, as well as appearing in the names of many villages throughout the Spanish-speaking world.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian casa, Portuguese casa, Galician casa, Catalan casa, French chez (from Latin casae), Italian casa, Aromanian casã, Romanian casă, Sardinian càsa
Peculiarly, French chez descends from the dative case in Latin ("at/to the house") and not the expected nominative case ("the house"). This is why in French one may say chez Pierre for "at Pierre's house," and is why many French sentences involving the word chez are difficult or nigh impossible to render word-for-word into Spanish.
As Longobardi (2001) points out, the French example is not simply interesting, but a parallel may exist in Spanish. In some dialects, a sentence like en casa Pedro "at Pedro's house" is grammatical. If the two phenomena are indeed related, and not the products of mere chance, then they point to a late innovation in Vulgar Latin.
casal m. (Noun) "rustic home"
From Late Latin casale "country house." From Latin casa "cottage" (see casa).
Also the origin of the surnames Casal, Casales, Casala and Casalas.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian casal, Portuguese casal, Galician casa, Catalan casa, Old French chesal, Italian casale
casar (1) (Verb) "to marry"
15th cent. From Vulgar Latin *casare 'id.,' a verb formed as a metaphor from Latin casa "house." See casa for a further etymology.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian casar, Portuguese casar, Galician casar, Catalan casar, Romanian căsători
casar (2) m. (Noun) "small village;" "farm house"
From casal. Compare Portuguese casal, which can mean either "rustic home" or "small village."
Also the origin of the surnames Casar, Casares.
casi (Adverb) "almost"
15th cent. From Latin quasi 'id.,' earlier qua(n)sei "as if," derived from quam "as" (see cuan) and Old Latin sei "if" (see si).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian cuasi, Portuguese quase, Galician case, Catalan quasi, French quasi, Italian quasi
caso m. (Noun) "case"
15th cent. Also meaning "chance," "destiny." From Latin casus "happening" but originally "fall." From cadere "to fall" (see caer).
Also the origin of the names of two towns, one in Laviana (Caso) and another in Lerida (Casos).
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian casu, Portuguese caso, Galician caso, Catalan cas, Italian caso