The only free and comprehensive online etymological dictionary of the Spanish language
cansar (Verb) "to tire"
11th cent. From Latin campsare "to avoid." Probably borrowed from Ancient Greek κάμψαι (kámpsai) "to be bent," "to be sailed around;" the aorist infinitive of κάμπτειν (kámptein) "to bend," "to curve." Of unknown origin, probably borrowed from a non-Indo-European language. Probably from the same origin of campo.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian cansar, Portuguese cansar, Galician cansar, Catalan cansar, Italian cansare
Penny (2002) notes that cansar is a particularly interesting archaism in Spanish. Because the Romans entered the Iberian peninsula and began the process of Latinization at such an early date (~3rd cent. BCE), the Latin dialect of the peninsula inherited a number of archaic vocabulary terms. Cansar is one such item, not found in Latin literature after the 2nd cent. BCE but evidently preserved in the dialect of Latin to become Spanish.
canso (Adjective) "tired"
13th cent. From Vulgar Latin *campsus 'id.,' from Latin campsare "to avoid" (see cansar).
cantar (Verb) "to sing"
10th cent. From Latin cantare "to sing," "to chant." From Latin canare "to sing" and frequentive suffix -tare (see note under faltar for origin). From Proto-Italic *kan-e(je)- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *kh2n-e- 'id.'
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian cantar, Portuguese cantar, Galician cantar, Catalan cançó, French chanter, Italian cantare, Aromanian cãntu, Romanian cânta, Sardinian cantari
Celtic
Old Irish canaid "sings," Welsh canu "to sing"
Germanic
Gothic hana "cock," "rooster," Crimean Gothic ano 'id.,' Old Norse hani 'id.,' Old High German hano 'id.,' Old Saxon hano 'id.,' Old English hana 'id.'
Hellenic
Ancient Greek κᾰνᾰχέειν (kanakhéin) "to ring"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit kaṇati "sing," Persian xândan 'id.'
Basque
Basque kantu "song," kantatu "to sing," borrowed from cantar
Originally canare meant "to sing" while cantare, with -tare added, was more forceful. Over time the impact of cantare was lost and began to match the meaning of canare. Thus, canare was replaced by cantare. When later speakers wanted to give force and frequency to the verb, they once again added -tare to cantare to form cantitare - unaware that their ancestors had created cantare from canare to fulfill that purpose. Cantitare has not survived in Spanish.
The Proto-Indo-European root behind cantar "prevailed only in Italic and Celtic, where it is associated with charms and spells as well as poetry. ...Latin cano, canto, cantus, carmen < *can-men, all of magical incantations as well as of singing in general." ~ M. West, Indo-European Poetry and Myth (2007)
capa f. (Noun) "cape"
10th cent. From Latin cappa 'id.,' first attested in the 6th cent. Of unknown origin. Suspiciously similar to other *kap(p)- roots in Italic. See also cabo.
Also the origin of the surname Capa.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian capa, Portuguese capa, Galician capa, Catalan capa, French chape, Italian cappa, Aromanian capã, Romanian capă
capaz (Adjective) "capable"
15th cent. From Latin capacem, accusative of capax "capable," but originally "able to contain." From capere "to fit," "to hold" (see caber).
Also the origin of the surname Capaz, Capaces.
capitán m. (Noun) "captain"
14th cent. From Late Latin capitaneus "captain." From caput "head" (see cabo).
Also the origin of the surname Capitán.
capra f. (Noun) "goat"
From Latin capra "she-goat." From Proto-Italic *kapra- 'id.' Likely a loan from a non-Indo-European language.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian cabra, Portuguese cabra, Galician cabra, Catalan cabra, French chèvre, Italian capra, Aromanian caprã, Romanian capră, Sardinian craba
Italic
Umbrian kaprum
Celtic
Gaulish gabrus, Old Irish caera "sheep" (from *kapera-), gabor, Middle Welsh gauar, Old Breton gabr, Old Cornish gauar
Germanic
Old Norse hafr, Old English hæfer
Hellenic
Ancient Greek κάπρος (kápros) "boar"
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit kápṛth (?) "penis"
Note the variation between *ka- and *ga- in Celtic (cf. Old Irish caera "sheep" and gabor "roebuck"). Additionally, note the variation between *-b- in Celtic and *-p- in Greek and Latin. There is no way to explain the interchange between *ka- ~ *ga- and *-p- and *-b- from within Indo-European. The words must come from a non-Indo-European source or sources.
cara f. (Noun) "face"
12th cent. From Latin cara 'id.,' from Greek κάρα (kára) "face," "head." Mycenaean ka-ra-. From Proto-Indo-European *ḱr̥h2r̥-(e)s-n "head."
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian cara, Portuguese cara, Galician cara, Catalan cara
Italic
Latin cerebrum (whence cerebro)
Germanic
Old Norse hjarni "brain," Old English hærn (English harns)
Hellenic
Ancient Greek κέρας (kéras) "drinking horn," "horn trumpet" (< *ḱer-h2-s-)
Armenian
Armenian sar
Indo-Iranian
Sanskrit śíras-, Young Avestan sarah-
Only Western Romance languages preserved the Latin word cara while Eastern Romance preferred the Vulgar Latin term *facia (also in Modern Spanish as faz).
carajo m. (Noun) "penis;" "crow's nest"
Unknown origin. A link to other Romance words for penis is plausible but shakey in which case we can posit a Vulgar Latin word *caraculus "little stick," which would have been a borrowing from Greek χάραξ (kháraks) "stick" with a diminutive suffix. χάραξ is of unknown origin. Possibly borrowed from a non-Indo-European language.
Indo-European
Romance
Asturian (dialects) carayu, Portuguese caralho, Galician carallo, Catalan carall
caravana f. (Noun) "caravan"
14th cent. Borrowed from Italian caravana 'id.,' which was borrowed from Persian kârvân "travellers of the Silk Road" (Old Persian kārawān). From Proto-Indo-European *kor-(o)- "war," "army."
Indo-European
Germanic
Old Norse herjann "raider," a name of Odin
Balto-Slavic
Lithuanian kãras "war"
Hellenic
Ancient Greek κοίρανος (koíranos) "lord commander"
Indo-Iranian
Old Persian kāra "army"